Design, fabrication, and characterization of high-performance AlxGa1-xN-based photodetectors for solar-blind applications are reported. AlxGa1-xN heterostructures were designed for Schottky, p-i-n, and metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes. The solar-blind photodiode samples were fabricated using a microwave compatible fabrication process. The resulting devices exhibited extremely low dark currents. Below 3 fA, leakage currents at 6-V reverse bias were measured on p-i-n samples. The excellent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics led to a detectivity performance of 4.9x10(14) cmHz(1/2)W(-1). The MSM devices exhibited photoconductive gain, while Schottky and p-i-n samples displayed 0.09 and 0.11 A/W peak responsivity values at 267 and 261 nm, respectively. A visible rejection of 2 x 10(4) was achieved with Schottky samples. High-speed measurements at 267 nm resulted in fast pulse responses with greater than gigahertz bandwidths. The fastest devices were MSM photodiodes with a maximum 3-dB bandwidth of 5.4 GHz.