in: Examining Complex Intergroup Relations: Through the Lens of Turkey, Shenel Husnu Raman,Huseyin Cakal, Editor, Routledge, London/New York , London, pp.106-124, 2022
Collective nostalgia is a group-based emotion that refers to the longing for the ‘good old days’ of one’s ingroup. Research shows that collective nostalgia usually benefits relationships with other in-group members while hampering intergroup relations. However, this depends on the past remembered. Moreover, global identification predicts positive intergroup relations, yet this depends on whether the target group is perceived to be aligned with global culture. Accordingly, we tested how collective nostalgia and global identification can then be linked to inclusionary vs. exclusionary outgroup attitudes in Turkey in relation to Kurds, Armenians, LGBTQ+ individuals, and Syrian refugees. The results showed (N = 1090) that collective nostalgia was related to positive attitudes towards Kurds, Armenians, and gay men, whereas it was negatively related to attitudes towards Syrian refugees. Moreover, contrary to expectations, we found that global identification predicted positive attitudes towards all outgroups. These findings are not surprising given the changing political climate and increasing intergroup conflict in Turkey. We speculate that the meaning attributed to the ‘good old days' of Turkey predicted these positive attitudes except for Syrian refugees who are perceived to be today’s problem. Overall, the relationship between nostalgia and outgroup attitudes is more complex than research has so far shown, and the content of the past remembered might be important to understand this relationship.