Context CapparisL. (Capparaceae) is grown worldwide. Caper has been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases including rheumatism, kidney, liver, stomach, as well as headache and toothache. Objective To isolate and elucidate of the secondary metabolites of theC. ovataextracts which are responsible for their anti-inflammatory activities. Materials and methods Buds, fruits, flowers, leaves and stems ofC. ovataDesf. was dried, cut to pieces, then ground separately. From their dichloromethane/hexane (1:1) extracts, eight compounds were isolated and their structures were elucidated by NMR, mass spectroscopic techniques. The effects of compounds on the expression of inflammatory cytokines in SH-SY5Y cell lines were examined by qRT-PCR ranging from 4 to 96 mu M. Cell viability was expressed as a percentage of the control, untreated cells. Results This is a first report on isolation of triterpenoids and steroids fromC. ovatawith anti-inflammatory activity. One new triterpenoid ester olean-12-en-3 beta,28-diol, 3 beta-pentacosanoate (1) and two new natural steroids 5 alpha,6 alpha-epoxycholestan-3 beta-ol (5) and 5 beta,6 beta-epoxycholestan-3 beta-ol (6) were elucidated besides known compounds; oleanolic acid (2), ursolic acid (3), beta-sitosterol (4), stigmast-5,22-dien-3 beta-myristate (7) and bismethyl-octylphthalate (8). mRNA expression levels as EC(10)of all the tested seven genes were decreased, particularly CXCL9 (19.36-fold), CXCL10 (8.14-fold), and TNF (18.69) by the treatment of 26 mu M of compound1on SH-SY5Y cells. Discussion and conclusions Triterpenoids and steroids isolated fromC. ovatawere found to be moderate-strong anti-inflammatory compounds. Particularly, compounds1and3were found to be promising therapeutic agents in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.