Even though a great number of researches have explored the determinants of carbon emissions, the impact of economic policy uncertainty (EPU) on the environment has not been fully investigated in the energy-environment literature. Since recent studies show a strong relationship between the external environment and uncertainty, the present study for the first time in the literature aims to explore the function of EPU in the energy-environment nexus for China by using the novel bounds testing with dynamic simulations. The empirical results indicate that increases in the real income and energy intensity contribute to environmental pollution while increases in renewable energy lower the level of emissions. Besides, an increase in EPU causes an increase in the volume of carbon emissions. As EPU increases, the government's attention to implement environmental protection policies decreases, and the execution of the environment-related strategies is likely directed in an expected way. The empirical findings suggest that the government should establish consistency in economic and environmental policies to mitigate environmental pollution and thus to reach environmental sustainability.