APPLIED ENERGY, vol.108, pp.218-235, 2013 (SCI-Expanded)
This paper considers system effects due to the addition of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHEV) and Distributed Energy Resource (DER) generation. The DER and PHEV are considered with energy storage technology applied to the residential distribution system load. Two future year scenarios are considered, 2020 and 2030. The models used are of real distribution circuits located near Detroit, Michigan, and every customer load on the circuit, and type of customer are modeled. Monte Carlo simulations are used to randomly select customers that receive PHEV, DER, and/or storage systems. The Monte Carlo simulations provide not only the expected average result, but also its uncertainty. The adoption scenarios are investigated for both summer and winter loading conditions. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.