The acceleration of myocardial relaxation produced by -adrenoreceptor stimulation is mediated in part by protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), which decreases myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity. Previous evidence suggests that phosphorylation of both Ser-23 and Ser-24 in cTnI is required for this Ca2+ desensitization. PKA-mediated phosphorylation also partially protects cTnI from proteolysis by calpain. Here we report that protein kinase D (PKD) phosphorylates only one serine of cTnI Ser-23/24. To explore the functional consequences of this monophosphorylation, we examined the Ca2+ sensitivity of force production and susceptibility of cTnI to calpain-mediated proteolysis when Ser-23/24 of cTnI in mouse cardiac myofibrils was nonphosphorylated, mono-phosphorylated, or bisphosphorylated (using sequential incubations in -phosphatase, PKD, and PKA, respectively). Phos-tag gels, Western blotting, and high-resolution MS revealed that PKD produced >90% monophosphorylation of cTnI, primarily at Ser-24, whereas PKA led to cTnI bisphosphorylation exclusively. PKD markedly decreased the Ca2+ sensitivity of force production in detergent-permeabilized ventricular trabeculae, whereas subsequent incubation with PKA produced only a small further fall of Ca2+ sensitivity. Unlike PKD, PKA also substantially phosphorylated myosin-binding protein-C and significantly accelerated cross-bridge kinetics (k(tr)). After phosphorylation by PKD or PKA, cTnI in isolated myofibrils was partially protected from calpain-mediated degradation. We conclude that cTnI monophosphorylation at Ser-23/24 decreases myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity and partially protects cTnI from calpain-induced proteolysis. In healthy cardiomyocytes, the basal monophosphorylation of cTnI may help tonically regulate myofibrillar Ca2+ sensitivity.