Effect of urbanization on surface runoff and performance of green roofs and permeable pavement for mitigating urban floods

Öztürk Ş., Yılmaz K., Dinçer A. E., Kalpakcı V.

Natural Hazards, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11069-024-06688-w
  • Journal Name: Natural Hazards
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, INSPEC, Metadex, PAIS International, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Excess precipitation, Floods, Green roofs, Hydraulic modeling, Infiltration, Nature based solution, Permeable pavements, Soil gradation
  • Abdullah Gül University Affiliated: Yes


Floods are increasingly becoming a significant concern due to climate change, global warming, and excessive urbanization. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has projected that global warming will continue to contribute to more frequent and severe floods and hydrological extremes. In response to these challenges, nature-based solutions (NBSs) have gained recognition as effective approaches to mitigate the adverse impacts of floods by focusing on ecosystem conservation, restoration, and sustainable utilization of natural resources. This study examines a flood that occurred in the Erkilet District of Kayseri, Türkiye on September 22, 2022, as a result of intense rainfall. It involves a thorough on-site investigation to assess the hydraulic, hydrologic, and geotechnical attributes of the study area. The findings from the field study indicate that the primary cause of the flood is attributed to excessive urbanization. To further analyze the impact of urbanization, a hydraulic model is developed considering both the physical and topographical conditions of the study area for both the year 2006 and 2022. The simulation results reveal that the extent of inundation area and water depth has increased significantly due to the excessive urbanization that occurred within a 16-year period. Additionally, the effectiveness of green roofs and permeable pavements as NBSs to mitigate urban flooding is explored. The implementation of green roofs and permeable pavements shows promising results, reducing the adverse effects of urban floods by 3% to 8%, depending on their specific locations and configurations. However, the results suggest that NBSs alone cannot fully prevent floods so they should complement gray infrastructure. The novelty of the study lies in its ability to demonstrate the impact of urbanization and the effectiveness of nature-based solutions in mitigating flood extent based.