In this chapter, we provide an overview of Syria's overall social, political and ethnic background. Syria, located in a geographically critical location, is home to people different ethnic background such as Arabic, Kurdish, and Turkmen. Having gone through political instability, Syria was under the influences of colonial forces. With the rise of Arab Spring in 2010, civil unrest began in Syria in 2011 and Syria has been in a civil war since then. We, then describe specific approaches to education and policies attached to social and political developments in Syria. Specifically, the chapter first introduces Syria's political history and current situation and its effect on education. Then, it examines English language education policies and its social, economic, and political impact on society. Additionally, English language policy is discussed within the realm of historical, political, and social context.