Finite Element Analysis of Low-Speed Oblique Impact Behavior of Adhesively Bonded Composite Single-Lap Joints

Atahan M. G., Apalak M. K.

Applied Composite Materials, vol.30, no.3, pp.955-985, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10443-023-10119-7
  • Journal Name: Applied Composite Materials
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Aerospace Database, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.955-985
  • Keywords: Low speed impact, Oblique impact, Cohesive zone model, Finite element method, Single-lap joint
  • Abdullah Gül University Affiliated: Yes


The development of a realistic numerical model that predicts the impact behavior of adhesively bonded composite joints is important for many industrial sectors such as automotive, aerospace, and marine. In this study, it was aimed to develop a numerical model that can predict the low-velocity oblique impact behavior of composite single-lap joints close to the experimental results. The validation of the proposed numerical model was carried out with the results of the previously experimentally tested joints. In explicit finite element analysis, the orthotropic material model and Hashin’s damage criterion were used in the numerical model of composite adherends. The adhesive region was divided into three different regions. The cohesive zone model (CZM) was used to determine the damage initiation and propagation in the upper and lower interface regions of adhesive. The middle region of the adhesive between the two cohesive interfaces was modeled with an elastic–plastic material model to reflect the plastic material behavior of the adhesive in the analysis. The effects of impact angle, fiber orientation, and overlap length on adhesive damage initiation and propagation were investigated in detail. There is a good agreement between the numerical and experimental results, considering the contact force-time variations and composite and adhesive damage. The impact angle and fiber angle had a significant effect on the impact behavior of the composite joints and the adhesive damage initiation and propagation. The increase in impact angle and fiber angle caused a decrease in the maximum contact force value. Adhesive damage propagation patterns varied according to the composite fiber orientation. In addition, since the shear toughness of the adhesive is higher than its tensile toughness, the amount of adhesive damage and damage propagation rate decreased as the impact angle increased.