Dwarf nettle (Urtica urens) seed extract was examined in vivo in the rat for its potential to modulate drug metabolizing enzymes including aminopyrine N-demethylase (APND; CYP2C6), aniline 4-hydroxylase (A4H; CYP2E1.), nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase (NDMA-ND; CYP2E1) erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND; CYP3A1) CYP2D1/2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST). RT-PCR data and western blotting studies clearly demonstrated that CYP2C6 and CYP2E1 mRNA levels were substantially increased after Urtica treatment, while the level of CYP3A1 mRNA decreased and that of CYP2D1/2 remained unchanged. Urtica treatment significantly induced GST activity in the liver, lung and kidney (66-, 46- and 31-fold, respectively) while decreasing that of APND (35-, 61- and 94-fold) and NDMA-ND (23, 28 and 54-fold). ERND activity in liver was reduced 45-fold, but increased in the lung and kidney (78- and 144-fold) after Urtica treatment. These results indicate that Urtica seed extract may have the potential to inhibit and/or induce the metabolism of certain co-administered drugs. Copyright (C) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.