IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON IMAGE PROCESSING, vol.25, no.7, pp.3316-3328, 2016 (SCI-Expanded)
A rich model-based motion vector (MV) steganalysis benefiting from both temporal and spatial correlations of MVs is proposed in this paper. The proposed steganalysis method has a substantially superior detection accuracy than the previous methods, even the targeted ones. The improvement in detection accuracy lies in several novel approaches introduced in this paper. First, it is shown that there is a strong correlation, not only spatially but also temporally, among neighbouring MVs for longer distances. Therefore, temporal MV dependency alongside the spatial dependency is utilized for rigorous MV steganalysis. Second, unlike the filters previously used, which were heuristically designed against a specific MV steganography, a diverse set of many filters, which can capture aberrations introduced by various MV steganography methods is used. The variety and also the number of the filter kernels are substantially more than that of used in the previous ones. Besides that, filters up to fifth order are employed whereas the previous methods use at most second order filters. As a result of these, the proposed system captures various decorrelations in a wide spatio-temporal range and provides a better cover model. The proposed method is tested against the most prominent MV steganalysis and steganography methods. To the best knowledge of the authors, the experiments section has the most comprehensive tests in MV steganalysis field, including five stego and seven steganalysis methods. Test results show that the proposed method yields around 20% detection accuracy increase in low payloads and 5% in higher payloads.