Chaotic delay systems are abundant in nature and play a significant role in engineering applications and in describing global behaviors of physical systems. This work presents novel first-order chaotic delay systems with the simplest nonlinearities. The exponential, absolute value, and hyperbolic and signum functions, which arise in many systems like electronic circuits, are utilized to generate chaotic delay systems. The practical realization of chaotic delay systems is carried out with all-pass filters and diode-based electronic circuits. Bifurcation diagrams using numerical simulations and experimental results are provided to verify the existence and feasibility of the novel chaotic delay systems. It is expected that the novel chaotic delay systems and the novel electronic implementation circuits will contribute to some practical applications and modeling of physical systems or events in different fields.