As populations age across the world, osteoporosis and osteoporosis-related fractures are becoming the most prevalent degenerative bone diseases. More than 75 million patients suffer from osteoporosis in the USA, the EU and Japan. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the number of patients affected by osteoporosis will increase by a third by 2050. Although conventional therapies including bisphosphonates, calcitonin and oestrogen-like drugs can be used to treat degenerative diseases of the bone, they are often associated with serious side effects including the development of oesophageal cancer, ocular inflammation, severe musculoskeletal pain and osteonecrosis of the jaw.The use of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells/mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a possible alternative therapeutic approach to tackle osteoporosis while overcoming the limitations of traditional treatment options. However, osteoporosis can cause a decrease in the numbers of MSCs, induce their senescence and lower their osteogenic differentiation potential.Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is an emerging technology that allows a more physiological expansion and differentiation of stem cells compared to cultivation on conventional flat systems.This review will discuss current understanding of the effects of different 3D cell culture systems on proliferation, viability and osteogenic differentiation, as well as on the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory potential of MSCs.