ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS, vol.53, no.1, 2020 (SCI-Expanded)
Today, GPUs are widely used as coprocessors/accelerators in High-Performance Heterogeneous Computing due to their many advantages. However, many researches emphasize that GPUs are not as reliable as desired yet. Despite the fact that GPUs are more vulnerable to hardware errors than CPUs, the use of GPUs in HPCs is increasing more and more. Moreover, due to native reliability problems of GPUs, combining a great number of GPUs with CPUs can significantly increase HPCs' failure rates. For this reason, analyzing the reliability characteristics of GPU-based HPCs has become a very important issue. Therefore, in this study we evaluate the reliability of GPU-based HPCs. For this purpose, we first examined field data analysis studies for GPU-based and CPU-based HPCs and identified factors that could increase systems failure/error rates. We then compared GPU-based HPCs with CPU-based HPCs in terms of reliability with the help of these factors in order to point out reliability challenges of GPU-based HPCs. Our primary goal is to present a study that can guide the researchers in this field by indicating the current state of GPU-based heterogeneous HPCs and requirements for the future, in terms of reliability. Our second goal is to offer a methodology to compare the reliability of GPU-based HPCs and CPU-based HPCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first survey study to compare the reliability of GPU-based and CPU-based HPCs in a systematic manner.