IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), Alaska, United States Of America, 3 - 08 May 2010, pp.3273-3278
In this paper, we provide a port-based mathematical framework for analyzing and modeling variable stiffness actuators. The framework provides important insights in the energy requirements and, therefore, it is an important tool for the design of energy efficient variable stiffness actuators. Based on new insights gained from this approach, a novel conceptual actuator is presented. Simulations show that the apparent output stiffness of this actuator can be dynamically changed in an energy efficient way.