Myofilaments are composed of thin and thick filaments that coordinate with each other to regulate muscle contraction and relaxation. PTMs together with genetic variations and alternative splicing of the myofilament proteins play essential roles in regulating cardiac contractility in health and disease. Therefore, a comprehensive characterization of the myofilament proteins in physiological and pathological conditions is essential for better understanding the molecular basis of cardiac function and dysfunction. Due to the vast complexity and dynamic nature of proteins, it is challenging to obtain a holistic view of myofilament protein modifications. In recent years, top-down MS has emerged as a powerful approach to study isoform composition and PTMs of proteins owing to its advantage of complete sequence coverage and its ability to identify PTMs and sequence variants without a priori knowledge. In this review, we will discuss the application of top-down MS to the study of cardiac myofilaments and highlight the insights it provides into the understanding of molecular mechanisms in contractile dysfunction of heart failure. Particularly, recent results of cardiac troponin and tropomyosin modifications will be elaborated. The limitations and perspectives on the use of top-down MS for myofilament protein characterization will also be briefly discussed.